Hadith 2. Fundamentals of Islam Part D

Also on the authority of `Umar (radi Allaahu ‘anhu), who said:

“One day while we were sitting with the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) there appeared before us a man whose clothes were exceedingly white and whose hair was exceedingly black; no signs of journey were to be seen on him and none of us knew him. He walked up and sat down in front of the Prophet (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam), with his knees touching against the Prophet’s (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) and placing the palms of his hands on his thighs he said: “O Muhammad, tell me about Islaam.”The Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) said: “Islaam is to testify that there is no deity worthy of worship but Allaah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah, to perform prayers, to give zakaah, to fast in Ramadaan, and to make the pilgrimage to the House if you are able to do so.”He said: “You have spoken rightly”; and we were amazed at him asking him and saying that he had spoken rightly.He (the man) said: “Tell me about Eemaan.”He (the Prophet, sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) said: “It is to believe in Allaah, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers, and the Last Day, and to believe in divine destiny (qadr), both the good and the evil of it.”He said: “You have spoken rightly.”He (the man) said: “Then tell me about Ihsaan.”He (the Prophet, sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) said: “It is to worship Allaah as though you see Him, and if you do not see Him, then (knowing that) truly He sees you.”He said: “Then tell me about the Hour.”He said: “The one questioned about it knows no better than the questioner.”He said: “Then tell me about its signs.”He said: “That the slave-girl will give birth to her mistress, and that you will see barefooted, naked destitute shepherds competing in constructing lofty buildings.”

Then he (the man) left, and I stayed for a time. The he (the Prophet, sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) said: “O `Umar, do you know who the questioner was?”

I said: “Allaah and His Messenger know best.”

He said: “It was Jibreel, who came to teach you your religion.”

It was related by Muslim

Brief Commentary

  • Belief in the Messengers entails belief in their:
    • Existence and that they were inspired with the truth
    • Belief in the messengers specifically mentioned in the Qur’an and ahadith
    • Belief in all that they stated and that they completed their messages
    • Submit and act in accordance with the final message
  • The difference between a messenger and a prophet is that a messenger is someone who is given a message and a prophet is someone who follows the message of a messenger before him
  • Every messenger is a prophet but not every prophet is a messenger
  • Every nation has been sent a messenger as in [Faatir, 35:24]
  • The prophets have infallibility from forgetting or falling into error when it comes to conveying matters of the religion, and they do not commit major sins
  • A reason why messengers were humans and not angels is so that we can try to emulate them
  • Disbelief in one is like disbelief in all, hence who does not believe in Muhammad (sallaAllahu ‘alayhi wasallam) is a disbeliever in all messengers
  • Tasks of the messengers:
    • Convey the message
    • Call people to believe in Allah
    • Give glad tidings and warnings
    • Correct the souls and purify them
    • Establish the proof upon the people
    • Lead the ummah
    • Correct the corrupted thoughts among the people


  • Belief in the last day entails belief in:
    • Life after death
    • The reckoning
    • Heaven and Hellfire
  • For every believer, Allah has created a place for him in Heaven and Hellfire, and if they are good, then their place in Hellfire will be given to someone else, otherwise, they will enter it. Knowing this should really make us more careful and fearful


  • Belief in divine will entails belief that:
    • Allah knows everything
    • It has all been written in اللوح المحفوظ /sacred tablet (the book of decrees)
    • Allah has decreed everything, but we have free-will and  whatever we do according to our free will, will be in conformity to what Allah has decreed
    • Allah created everything, so He created us and our actions
  • In the hadith, belief in divine will was reiterated to show its importance and to signify that many people will not believe in it
  • Belief in divine will does not negate free-will, it just says that Allah knew you would do such and such
  • If we see something bad, we don’t say Allah wanted it, but say Allah allowed it
  • There may be many wisdoms behind what we perceive as evil
  • Allah created us and our actions because for every action you need:
    • A will: you can only do this with Allah’s will
    • Ability: you can only do this with Allah’s blessings
  • Knowing this should make us more humble in front of Allah and show more gratitude to Him, because even our righteous actions are due to His blessings and will


Benefits and action points

  • Learn more about the messengers, the last day, and divine will by reading “The creed series” by Umar Al-Ashqar
  • Benefits from believing in the messengers:
    • We learn that Allah has mercy on His servants by showing them the right path
    • We have great gratitude for Allah for providing us with the messengers
    • It yields great love for them if we know their stories
  • Benefits from believing in the last day:
    • Makes you yearn for good deeds and do more good
    • Makes you fear the punishment of Allah and stop sinning
    • A consolidation for a believer that Allah will reward you and stop your suffering
  • Benefits from believing in divine will:
    • You always put dependency on Allah alone
    • You are not boastful because you only managed it with Allah’s aid
    • You have tranquillity and peace of mind
    • You get strength knowing that nothing will harm you if Allah hasn’t decreed it

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